Cellular Automata Based Image Authentication Scheme Using Extended Visual Cryptography

keywords: Image authentication, cellular automata, extended visual cryptography, watermarking, normalized Hamming similarity, PSNR, SSIM
Most of the Visual Cryptography based image authentication schemes hide the share and authentication data into cover images by using an additional data hiding process. This process increases the computational cost of the schemes. Pixel expansion, meaningless shares and use of codebook are other challenges in these schemes. To overcome these issues, an authentication scheme is proposed in which no embedding into the cover images is performed and meaningful authentication shares are created using the watermark and cover images. This makes the scheme completely imperceptible. The watermark can be retrieved just by superimposing these authentication shares, thus reducing the computational complexity at receiver's side. Cellular Automata is used to construct the master share that provides self-construction ability to the shares. The meaningful authentication shares help in enhancing the security of the scheme while size invariance saves transmission and storage cost. The scheme possesses the ability of tamper detection and its localization. Experimental results demonstrate the improved security and quality of the generated shares of the proposed scheme as compared to existing schemes.
reference: Vol. 38, 2019, No. 6, pp. 1272–1300