PointVotes: A Deep Learing Point Cloud Model for Tire Bubble Defect Detection

keywords: 3D point cloud, target detection, point sampling method, neural network, vote
In order to eliminate the hidden dangers caused by tire bubble defects, considering that the two-dimensional technology is sensitive to light, the 3D point cloud technology is used to obtain the tire surface morphology. This paper proposes a 3D point cloud network model named PointVotes, a point based target detection method. The designed structural framework includes: the fusion sampling layer, the voting layer and the proposal refinement layer. By observing the spatial characteristics of the detected target, a new point sampling method named C-farthest point sampling (C-FPS) is proposed. Combining with the fusion sampling strategy, the FPS and the C-FPS are sampled in a certain proportion. It solves the problem that the proposal box cannot be generated due to less available prospect information when generating suggestions for small targets. The network model uses Set Abstraction layers in multiple PointNet++ to extract features, arranges and combines features of different scales, forms high-dimensional features of points and votes, judges whether there are bubble defects through classification, and then generates proposals and regression to the prediction frame. Experiment results show that the mean average precision of the model can reach 82.8 % with a detection time of 0.12 s.
reference: Vol. 41, 2022, No. 6, pp. 1446–1464